Chris Barta


Chris conducts legal research for and updates Nolo's books and websites. Before working at Nolo, Chris was a reference attorney and Westlaw account manager for Thomson Reuters. Chris earned an undergraduate degree in English from Saint John's University (Minnesota), and his J.D. from Mitchell Hamline School of Law in Minnesota.

Articles By Chris Barta

California's DUI Implied Consent Laws: Refusing Blood Alcohol Testing
California’s “implied consent” law requires all drivers lawfully arrested for a DUI to submit to chemical testing to determine blood alcohol concentration. Read about how this law works and the penalties you'll face for an unlawful refusal.
Third-Offense DUI in California
If you are charged with your third DUI in California (and you first one was less than 10 years earlier), the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) will impose administrative sanctions independent of criminal penalties described below.
Second-Offense DUI in California
For a second DUI conviction in California, you'll face fines, license suspension, and the possibility of jail time. Read the specifics about second-offense DUI penalties in California.
First-Offense DUI in California
Defendants facing a first DUI in California face both criminal and administrative penalties. In addition to fines and license suspension, a motorist may face jail time. Read about the specifics of the penalties you'll face if convicted of a first DUI in California.
Ohio's Implied Consent Laws: Refusing Alcohol Testing
In Ohio, if you get pulled over for an OVI (operating a vehicle under the influence) and the officer asks you to take a blood, breath, or urine test, do you have to take one? What happens if you refuse?
Nebraska's "24/7 Sobriety Program": An Alternative to Jail
Nebraska followed an emerging nationwide trend to rehabilitate rather than punish DUI offenders by expanding its “24/7 Sobriety Program" statewide.
Aggravating Factors for DUI Sentencing in California
Learn about how mitigating and aggravating factors—like criminal record, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), criminal record, and driving patterns—can affect DUI penalties in California.
Scooter and Bike DUIs in California
Motorized scooters, electric bikes, and traditional bikes are subject to most of the same traffic laws as regular vehicles. However, it appears the Legislature has recognized that intoxicated operation of a bike or scooter might not pose the same level of risk to the public as operating a car or truck while under the influence.
Third Offense OVI/DUI in Ohio
In Ohio, the term "OVI" ("Operating a Vehicle Intoxicated") is used to describe DUI offenses, which include both drugs and alcohol. (DUI and OVI are used interchangeably.) While .08 BAC is the legal limit pertaining to alcohol, it is illegal to drive with any amount of a controlled substances (drugs) present in the driver's blood.
Second Offense OVI/DUI in Ohio
In Ohio, driving under the influence is normally referred to as “operating under the influence”(OVI). You can be convicted in criminal court of OVI if you operate a vehicle under several conditions.